Since 1994, DEQ has worked to strengthen the markets for Virginia-derived waste tire material with its End User Reimbursement Program, providing a financial rebate to those who use Virginia tire material in their products or processes. Over the years, this Program provided sufficient incentives to waste tire generators, haulers, processors and end users to capture, process and beneficially use almost 100% of the waste tires generated in Virginia.
The End User Reimbursement Program makes direct payments to beneficial end users of Virginia-generated waste tire material. The program was authorized by the Virginia General Assembly in 1994 (§10.1-1418.3 of the Code of Virginia) and regulations were adopted by the Virginia Waste Management Board which established the eligible uses and reimbursement rates, with FY 2013 rates of $15.00 per ton of current flow tire material or $100 per ton for material generated from a certified tire pile. Only seven states have used the EUR system to support markets (most provide selective grants or loans) and Virginia is the only state to offer the tire pile cleanup payment differential.
The Virginia Waste Management Board adopted the Waste Tire End User Reimbursement Regulations (9 VAC 20 Chapter 150), effective on December 20, 1994 and modified them on January 4, 1996, November 18, 1997 and August 11, 2003. These regulations specify the operating provisions of the program.
Eligible end uses include:(Paragraph 9 VAC 20-150-40 of Regulation)
- Civil engineering applications which utilize waste tire material as a substitute for soil, sand, or aggregate in construction projects such as road bases and embankments, septic system drainage media, fill material and several landfill applications. Note: Civil engineering is particularly well suited for use of old, dirty and decaying tire pile tire material.
- Burning of waste tire materials for energy recovery.
- Pyrolysis of waste tires.
- Products made from waste tire materials such as rubberized asphalt, mats, recreational surfaces, drainage systems, building materials and recycled products.
The waste tires must be shown to have been generated in Virginia through documentation such as a Waste Tire Certification. Waste tires are considered Virginia-generated if they meet one of these criteria (Paragraph 9 VAC 20-150-100 of the Regulation):
- Discarded as the result of a sale, trade, or exchange in Virginia; or
- from a Virginia tire pile that existed prior to the effective date of the Regulation (December 20, 1994); or
- from a Virginia tire pile that was created without the property owner's knowledge or permission.
Waste Tire End Uses
Since 1994, there has been on-going changes in the categories of end user of Virginia waste tire material, as markets develop and mature, or decline, and as processors open and close.
|Tire-derived Fuel (TDF)
|Civil Engineering (CE)
|Landfill Drainage Media
|Landfill Trenches and Cover
|Civil Engineering Subtotal
Waste Tire End Users
A sample of end users indicates the diversity of type and location for Virginia tire materials:
Tire-derived Fuel (TDF)
- Primary Energy- Roxboro, NC
- Primary Energy- Southport, NC
- Bowater Paper- Catawba, SC
- St. Lawrence Cement- Hagerstown, MD
- Lehigh Cement - Allentown, PA
Civil Engineering (CE)
Landfill Drainage Medium
- Atlantic Waste landfill- Sussex County
- West Virginia Tire Disposal- Summersville, WV
- SPSA landfill- Suffolk
- 623 Landfill - Goochland County
- Waste Management landfill - King George County
- Accomac County landfill
- East End Landfill - Henrico
Landfill Trench and Cover Material
- Bristol City landfill
- Charles City County (Waste Management) landfill
- Wise County landfill
- Prince William County landfill
- New River Resource Authority landfill - Pulaski County
- Frederick County landfill
- John C. Holland landfill - Suffolk
- Barnhill Septic- Mullins, SC
- Dyson Landscaping- Manning, SC
- Gillispie Septic- Liberty, SC
- Enviva Materials - Youngstown, Ohio
- Emanuel Tire - Baltimore, MD
Waste Tire Piles Cleaned Up
Since 1996, Virginia has used this unique reimbursement differential for tire pile cleanups (initially $50 per ton, then $75 per ton, and now $100 per ton). This system eliminates the need for competitive bidding, and allows any processor/end user "team" to "go to the field" and compete for cleanup work for piles ranging from 100 tires to 4,641,400 tires. Though the $100 per ton incentive is still available, the complexities and variability of the remaining tire piles in the Commonwealth has limited interest by processors and their hauler networks tomove to cleanup the difficult tire pile sites. Accordingly, in the late 90's DEQ shifted cleanup focus to contracted cleanups under the Clean Sweep projects. Such contracting was dependent on available funding. At this time the program has no contracted cleanups in place. An increased interest by property owners and processors/end users has revitalized the $100 per ton EUR tire pile cleanups program in certain areas of Virginia.