The treatment of sewage sludge, storage and land application of biosolids, industrial wastes (sludge and wastewater), municipal wastewater, and animal wastes (manure/litter from livestock and poultry) are regulated activities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. A Virginia Pollution Abatement (VPA) permit may be issued by DEQ whenever an owner handles waste and wastewater in a manner that does not involve discharging to a sewage treatment work, or to state waters pursuant to a valid Virginia Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (VPDES) permit. In general, land application of biosolids, industrial sludge or spray irrigation of industrial and municipal wastewater is covered by a VPA individual permit.
Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs) are covered by a VPA individual or general permit. A separate VPA general permit covers confined poultry feeding operations for poultry waste management. VPDES permits may be required for some Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs).