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Packaging: The assembly of one or more containers and any other components necessary to ensure minimum compliance with a program's storage and shipment packaging requirements. Also, the containers, etc. involved.
Packed Bed Scrubber: An air pollution control device in which emissions pass through alkaline water to neutralize hydrogen chloride gas.
Packed Tower: A pollution control device that forces dirty air through a tower packed with crushed rock or wood chips while liquid is sprayed over the packing material. The pollutants in the air stream either dissolve or chemically react with the liquid.
Packer: An inflatable gland, or balloon, used to create a temporary seal in a borehole, probe hole, well, or drive casing. It is made of rubber or non-reactive materials.
Palatable Water: Water, at a desirable temperature, that is free from objectionable tastes, odors, colors, and turbidity.
Pandemic: A widespread epidemic throughout an area, nation or the world.
Paper: In the recycling business, refers to products and materials, including newspapers, magazines, office papers, corrugated containers, bags and some paperboard packaging that can be recycled into new paper products.
Paper Processor/Plastics Processor: Intermediate facility where recovered paper or plastic products and materials are sorted, decontaminated, and prepared for final recycling.
Parameter: A variable, measurable property whose value is a determinant of the characteristics of a system; e.g. temperature, pressure, and density are parameters of the atmosphere.
Participation Rate: Portion of population participating in a recycling program.
Particle Count: Results of a microscopic examination of treated water with a special "particle counter" that classifies suspended particles by number and size.
Particle Pollution: Particle pollution in the air includes a mixture of solids and liquid droplets. Some particles are emitted directly; others are formed in the atmosphere when other pollutants react. Particles come in a wide range of sizes. Those less than 10 micrometers in diameter are so small that they can get into the lungs, potentially causing serious health problems. Ten micrometers is smaller than the width of a single human hair. (Also known as particulate matter, or PM.)
Particulate Loading: The mass of particulates per unit volume of air or water.
Particulates: 1. Fine liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist, fumes, or smog, found in air or emissions. 2. Very small solids suspended in water; they can vary in size, shape, density and electrical charge and can be gathered together by coagulation and flocculation.
Partition Coefficient: Measure of the sorption phenomenon, whereby a pesticide is divided between the soil and water phase; also referred to as adsorption partition coefficient.
Parts Per Billion (ppb)/Parts Per Million (ppm): Units commonly used to express contamination ratios, as in establishing the maximum permissible amount of a contaminant in water, land, or air.
Passive Treatment Walls: Technology in which a chemical reaction takes place when contaminated ground water comes in contact with a barrier such as limestone or a wall containing iron filings.
Pathogens: Microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, viruses, or parasites) that can cause disease in humans, animals and plants.
Pathway: The physical course a chemical or pollutant takes from its source to the exposed organism.
Peak Electricity Demand: The maximum electricity used to meet the cooling load of a building or buildings in a given area.
Peak Levels: Levels of airborne pollutant contaminants much higher than average or occurring for short periods of time in response to sudden releases.
Percent Saturation: The amount of a substance that is dissolved in a solution compared to the amount that could be dissolved in it.
Perched Water: Zone of unpressurized water held above the water table by impermeable rock or sediment.
Percolating Water: Water that passes through rocks or soil under the force of gravity.
Percolation: 1. The movement of water downward and radially through subsurface soil layers, usually continuing downward to ground water. Can also involve upward movement of water. 2. Slow seepage of water through a filter.
Performance Bond: Cash or securities deposited before a landfill operating permit is issued, which are held to ensure that all requirements for operating ad subsequently closing the landfill are faithful performed. The money is returned to the owner after proper closure of the landfill is completed. If contamination or other problems appear at any time during operation, or upon closure, and are not addressed, the owner must forfeit all or part of the bond which is then used to cover clean-up costs.
Performance Data (for incinerators): Information collected, during a trial burn, on concentrations of designated organic compounds and pollutants found in incinerator emissions. Data analysis must show that the incinerator meets performance standards under operating conditions specified in the RCRA permit. (See: trial burn; performance standards.)
Performance Standards: 1. Regulatory requirements limiting the concentrations of designated organic compounds, particulate matter, and hydrogen chloride in emissions from incinerators. 2. Operating standards established by EPA for various permitted pollution control systems, asbestos inspections, and various program operations and maintenance requirements.
Periphyton: Microscopic underwater plants and animals that are firmly attached to solid surfaces such as rocks, logs, and pilings.
Permeability: The rate at which liquids pass through soil or other materials in a specified direction.
Permissible Dose: The dose of a chemical that may be received by an individual without the expectation of a significantly harmful result.
Permit: An authorization, license, or equivalent control document issued by EPA or an approved state agency to implement the requirements of an environmental regulation; e.g. a permit to operate a wastewater treatment plant or to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions.
Persistence: Refers to the length of time a compound stays in the environment, once introduced. A compound may persist for less than a second or indefinitely.
Persistent Pesticides: Pesticides that do not break down chemically or break down very slowly and remain in the environment after a growing season.
Personal Protective Equipment: Clothing and equipment worn by pesticide mixers, loaders and applicators, re-entry workers, hazmat emergency responders, and workers cleaning up Superfund and other sites to reduce their exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals and other pollutants.
PETE (Polyethylene Terepthalate): Thermoplastic material used in plastic soft drink and rigid containers.
Petroleum: Crude oil or any fraction thereof that is liquid under normal conditions of temperature and pressure. The term includes petroleum-based substances comprising a complex blend of hydrocarbons derived from crude oil through the process of separation, conversion, upgrading, and finishing, such as motor fuel, jet oil, lubricants, petroleum solvents, and used oil.
Petroleum Derivatives: Chemicals formed when gasoline breaks down in contact with ground water.
pH: An expression of the intensity of the basic or acid condition of a liquid; may range from 0 to 14, where 0 is the most acid and 7 is neutral. Natural waters usually have a pH between 6.5 and 8.5.
Phenolphthalein Alkalinity: The alkalinity in a water sample measured by the amount of standard acid needed to lower the pH to a level of 8.3 as indicated by the change of color of the phenolphthalein from pink to clear.
Phenols: Organic compounds that are byproducts of petroleum refining, tanning, and textile, dye, and resin manufacturing. Low concentrations cause taste and odor problems in water; higher concentrations can kill aquatic life and humans.
Phosphates: Certain chemical compounds containing phosphorus.
Phosphogypsum Piles (Stacks): Principal byproduct generated in production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock. These piles may generate radioactive radon gas.
Phosphorus: An essential chemical food element that can contribute to the eutrophication of lakes and other water bodies. Increased phosphorus levels result from discharge of phosphorus-containing materials into surface waters.
Phosphorus Plants: Facilities using electric furnaces to produce elemental phosphorous for commercial use, such as high grade phosphoric acid, phosphate-based detergent, and organic chemicals use.
Photochemical Oxidants: Air pollutants formed by the action of sunlight on oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons.
Photochemical Smog: Air pollution caused by chemical reactions of various pollutants emitted from different sources.
Photosynthesis: 1. The process by which chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants use light and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce glucose and oxygen. 2. Also the process by which plants clean the air by taking in pollutants and gases through their leaves and roots and convert them to harmless substances.
Physical and Chemical Treatment: Processes generally used in large-scale wastewater treatment facilities. Physical processes may include air-stripping or filtration. Chemical treatment includes coagulation, chlorination, or ozonation. The term can also refer to treatment of toxic materials in surface and ground waters, oil spills, and some methods of dealing with hazardous materials on or in the ground.
Phytoplankton: That portion of the plankton community comprised of tiny plants; e.g. algae, diatoms.
Phytoremediation: Low-cost remediation option for sites with widely dispersed contamination at low concentrations.
Phytotoxic: Harmful to plants.
Phytotreatment: The cultivation of specialized plants that absorb specific contaminants from the soil through their roots or foliage. This reduces the concentration of contaminants in the soil, but incorporates them into biomasses that may be released back into the environment when the plant dies or is harvested.
Picocuries Per Liter (pCi/L): A unit of measure for levels of radon gas; becquerels per cubic meter is the metric equivalent.
Piezometer: A nonpumping well, generally of small diameter, for measuring the elevation of a water table.
Pilot Tests: Testing a cleanup technology under actual site conditions to identify potential problems prior to full-scale implementation.
Plankton: Tiny plants and animals that live in water.
Plasma-Arc Reactor: An incinerator that operates at extremely high temperatures; treats highly toxic wastes that do not burn easily.
Plasmid: A circular piece of DNA that exists apart from the chromosome and replicates independently of it. Bacterial plasmids carry information that renders the bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Plasmids are often used in genetic engineering to carry desired genes into organisms.
Plastics: Non-metallic chemoreactive compounds molded into rigid or pliable construction materials, fabrics, etc.
Plate Tower Scrubber: An air pollution control device that neutralizes hydrogen chloride gas by bubbling alkaline water through holes in a series of metal plates.
Plug Flow: Type of flow that occurs in tanks, basins, or reactors when a slug of water moves through without ever dispersing or mixing with the rest of the water flowing through.
Plugging: Act or process of stopping the flow of water, oil, or gas into or out of a formation through a borehole or well penetrating that formation.
Plume: 1. A visible or measurable discharge of a contaminant from a given point of origin. Can be visible or thermal in water, or visible in the air as, for example, a plume of smoke. 2 The area of radiation leaking from a damaged reactor. 3. Area downwind within which a release could be dangerous for those exposed to leaking fumes.
Plutonium: A radioactive metallic element chemically similar to uranium.
PM2.5: Particulate matter equal to or less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. There are annual and 24-hour National Air Quality Standards for PM2.5. The annual standard is 15 ug/m3 (microgram per cubic meter), which is an arithmetic mean, averaged over three years. The daily standard is 35 ug/m3, which is a 24-hour average (98 percentile), averaged over three years.
PM10: Particulate matter equal to or less than 10 micrometers in diameter. The National Air Quality Standard for PM10 is 150 ug/m3 (microgram per cubic meter), which is a 24-hour average that is not be exceeded more than once per year on average over a three year period. There is no longer an annual standard for PM10.
Pneumoconiosis: Health conditions characterized by permanent deposition of substantial amounts of particulate matter in the lungs and by the tissue reaction to its presence; can range from relatively harmless forms of sclerosis to the destructive fibrotic effect of silicosis.
Point Source Pollution: A stationary location or fixed facility from which pollutants are discharged; any single identifiable source of pollution; e.g. a pipe, ditch, ship, ore pit, factory smokestack.
Point-of-Contact Measurement of Exposure: Estimating exposure by measuring concentrations over time (while the exposure is taking place) at or near the place where it is occurring.
Point-of-Disinfectant Application: The point where disinfectant is applied and water downstream of that point is not subject to recontamination by surface water runoff.
Point-of-Use Treatment Device: Treatment device applied to a single tap to reduce contaminants in the drinking water at the one faucet.
Pollen: 1. The fertilizing element of flowering plants. 2. Background air pollutant.
Pollutant: Generally, any substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the usefulness of a resource or the health of humans, animals, or ecosystems. It includes dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials, heat, wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt, and industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water.
Pollutant Pathways: Avenues for distribution of pollutants. In most buildings, for example, HVAC systems are the primary pathways although all building components can interact to affect how air movement distributes pollutants.
Pollution: Generally, the presence of a substance in the environment that because of its chemical composition or quantity prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects. Under the Clean Water Act, for example, the term has been defined as the man-made or man-induced alteration of the physical, biological, chemical, and radiological integrity of water and other media.
Pollution Offsets: Air pollution reduction credits that offset any increased emissions resulting from a prospective new or expanding industry in a nonattainment area.
Pollution Prevention: P2, as it is known, is reducing or eliminating the creation of pollutants or wastes at the source through using less hazardous raw materials or using more efficient practices or processes. Pollution prevention includes reducing the use of energy, water, and other resources through increased efficiency, on-site recycling, or through conservation.
Polonium: A radioactive element that occurs in pitchblende and other uranium-containing ores.
Polyelectrolytes: Synthetic chemicals that help solids to clump during sewage treatment.
Polymer: A natural or synthetic chemical structure where two or more like molecules are joined to form a more complex molecular structure (e.g. polyethylene in plastic).
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): A tough, environmentally indestructible plastic that releases hydrochloric acid when burned.
Population: A group of interbreeding organisms occupying a particular space; the number of humans or other living creatures in a designated area.
Population at Risk: A population subgroup that is more likely to be exposed to a chemical, or is more sensitive to the chemical, than is the general population.
Porosity: Degree to which soil, gravel, sediment, or rock is permeated with pores or cavities through which water or air can move.
Post-Chlorination: Addition of chlorine to plant effluent for disinfectant purposes after the effluent has been treated.
Post-Closure: The time period following the shutdown of a waste management or manufacturing facility; for monitoring purposes, often considered to be 30 years.
Post-Consumer Materials/Waste: Recovered materials that are diverted from municipal solid waste for the purpose of collection, recycling, and disposition.
Post-Consumer Recycling: Use of materials generated from residential and consumer waste for new or similar purposes; e.g. converting wastepaper from offices into corrugated boxes or newsprint.
Potable Water: Water that is safe for drinking and cooking.
Potential Dose: The amount of a compound contained in material swallowed, breathed, or applied to the skin.
Potentially Responsible Party (PRP): Any individual or company--including owners, operators, transporters or generators--potentially responsible for, or contributing to a spill or other contamination at a Superfund site. Whenever possible, through administrative and legal actions, EPA requires PRPs to clean up hazardous sites they have contaminated.
Potentiation: The ability of one chemical to increase the effect of another chemical.
Potentiometric Surface: The surface to which water in an aquifer can rise by hydrostatic pressure.
Precautionary Principle: When information about potential risks is incomplete, basing decisions about the best ways to manage or reduce risks on a preference for avoiding unnecessary health risks instead of on unnecessary economic expenditures.
Pre-Consumer Materials/Waste: Materials generated in manufacturing and converting processes such as manufacturing scrap and trimmings and cuttings. Includes print overruns, overissue publications, and obsolete inventories.
Prechlorination: The addition of chlorine at the headworks of a treatment plant prior to other treatment processes. Done mainly for disinfection and control of tastes, odors, and aquatic growths, and to aid in coagulation and settling,
Precipitate: A substance separated from a solution or suspension by chemical or physical change.
Precipitation: Removal of hazardous solids from liquid waste to permit safe disposal; removal of particles from airborne emissions as in rain (e.g. acid precipitation).
Precipitator: Pollution control device that collects particles from an air stream.
Precursor: In photochemistry, a compound antecedent to a pollutant. For example, volatile organic compounds and nitric oxides of nitrogen react in sunlight to form ozone or other photochemical oxidants. As such, VOCs and oxides of nitrogen are precursors.
Preliminary Assessment: The process of collecting and reviewing available information about a known or suspected waste site or release.
Preliminary Engineering Proposal (PEP): A document which is required by the Virginia Sewage Regulations. Usually prepared by the consulting engineer, hired by the loan recipient. The PEP assesses the current facilities, projects future needs, develops alternatives, assesses the environmental impact of the proposed alternatives, provides cost estimates and presents a selected alternative
Preliminary Engineering Report (PER): Same document as a Preliminary Engineering Proposal. Required by the Virginia Sewage Regulations, the document is usually prepared by a consulting engineering firm, hired by the loan recipient. It contains a description of the existing facilities, projects the future wastewater treatment needs, proposes alternatives for meeting those needs, assesses the environmental impact of the alternatives and provides cost estimates. Both PER and PEP are used to describe the document but the use of Preliminary Engineering Report is probably more common.
Prescriptive: Water rights which are acquired by diverting water and putting it to use in accordance with specified procedures; e.g. filing a request with a state agency to use unused water in a stream, river, or lake.
Pressed Wood Products: Materials used in building and furniture construction that are made from wood veneers, particles, or fibers bonded together with an adhesive under heat and pressure.
Pressure Sewers: A system of pipes in which water, wastewater, or other liquid is pumped to a higher elevation.
Pressure, Static: In flowing air, the total pressure minus velocity pressure, pushing equally in all directions.
Pressure, Total: In flowing air, the sum of the static and velocity pressures.
Pressure, Velocity: In flowing air, the pressure due to velocity and density of air.
Pretreatment: Processes used to reduce, eliminate, or alter the nature of wastewater pollutants from non-domestic sources before they are discharged into publicly owned treatment works (POTWs).
Prevalent Level Samples: Air samples taken under normal conditions (also known as ambient background samples).
Prevalent Levels: Levels of airborne contaminant occurring under normal conditions.
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD): EPA program in which state and/or federal permits are required in order to restrict emissions from new or modified sources in places where air quality already meets or exceeds primary and secondary ambient air quality standards.
PSD Increment: The maximum increase in concentration that is allowed to occur above a baseline concentration for a pollutant while ensuring that an area continues to meet federal air quality standards.
Primacy: Having the primary responsibility for administering and enforcing regulations.
Primary Drinking Water Regulation: Applies to public water systems and specifies a contaminant level, which, in the judgment of the EPA Administrator, will not adversely affect human health.
Primary Effect: An effect where the stressor acts directly on the ecological component of interest, not on other parts of the ecosystem. (See: secondary effect.)
Primary Standards: National ambient air quality standards designed to protect human health with an adequate margin for safety. (See: National Ambient Air Quality Standards, secondary standards.)
Primary Treatment: First steps in wastewater treatment; screens and sedimentation tanks are used to remove most materials that float or will settle. Primary treatment removes about 30 percent of carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand from domestic sewage. (See: advanced wastewater treatment, secondary treatment, tertiary treatment.)
Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs): Hazardous compounds monitored during an incinerator's trial burn, selected for high concentration in the waste feed and difficulty of combustion.
Prions: Microscopic particles made of protein that can cause disease.
Prior Appropriation: A doctrine of water law that allocates the rights to use water on a first-come, first-served basis.
Probability of Detection: The likelihood, expressed as a percentage, that a test method will correctly identify a leaking tank.
Process Variable: A physical or chemical quantity which is usually measured and controlled in the operation of a water treatment plant or industrial plant.
Process Verification: Verifying that process raw materials, water usage, waste treatment processes, production rate and other facts relative to quantity and quality of pollutants contained in discharges are substantially described in the permit application and the issued permit.
Process Wastewater: Any water that comes into contact with any raw material, product, byproduct, or waste.
Process Weight: Total weight of all materials, including fuel, used in a manufacturing process; used to calculate the allowable particulate emission rate.
Producers: Plants that perform photosynthesis and provide food to consumers.
Product Level: The level of a product in a storage tank.
Product Water: Water that has passed through a water treatment plant and is ready to be delivered to consumers.
Products of Incomplete Combustion (PICs): Organic compounds formed by combustion. Usually generated in small amounts and sometimes toxic, PICs are heat-altered versions of the original material fed into the incinerator (e.g. charcoal is a PIC from burning wood).
Proteins: Complex nitrogenous organic compounds of high molecular weight made of amino acids; essential for growth and repair of animal tissue. Many, but not all, proteins are enzymes.
Protocol: A series of formal steps for conducting a test.
Protoplast: A membrane-bound cell from which the outer wall has been partially or completely removed. The term often is applied to plant cells.
Protozoa: One-celled animals that are larger and more complex than bacteria. May cause disease.
Public Comment Period: The time allowed for the public to express its views and concerns regarding an action by DEQ or one of its citizen boards (e.g. a notice of intended regulatory action or a public notice of a draft permit).
Public Health Approach: Regulatory and voluntary focus on effective and feasible risk management actions at the national and community level to reduce human exposures and risks, with priority given to reducing exposures with the biggest impacts in terms of the number affected and severity of effect.
Public Health Context: The incidence, prevalence, and severity of diseases in communities or populations and the factors that account for them, including infections, exposure to pollutants, and other exposures or activities.
Public Hearing: A formal meeting wherein a member of the Air Pollution Control Board, State Water Control Board, or Waste Management Board hears the public's views and concerns about an action or proposal. Public hearings may be a requirement or held upon request during the public comment period.
Public Notice: Notification by EPA informing the public of Agency actions such as the issuance of a draft permit or scheduling of a hearing.
Public Water System: A system that provides piped water for human consumption to at least 15 service connections or regularly serves 25 individuals.
Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs): A waste-treatment works owned by a state, unit of local government, or Indian tribe, usually designed to treat domestic wastewaters.
Pumping Station: Mechanical device installed in sewer or water system or other liquid-carrying pipelines to move the liquids to a higher level.
Pumping Test: A test conducted to determine aquifer or well characteristics.
Purging: Removing stagnant air or water from sampling zone or equipment prior to sample collection.
Putrefaction: Biological decomposition of organic matter; associated with anaerobic conditions.
Putrescible: Able to rot quickly enough to cause odors and attract flies.
Pyrolysis: Decomposition of a chemical by extreme heat.